Walker revolutionized the Black hair-care industry and showed Black women that they could succeed.
Randolph organized a union for the Pullman porters. That group associated with the American Federation of Labor in 1928. In June 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an executive order banning segregation against 5 million Black workers in the defense industry.
Johnson turned $500 borrowed against his mother’s furniture to create Johnson Publishing Co., the home of Ebony and Jet magazines.
Gaston sold burial insurance, made caskets, was an undertaker and owned a cemetery. He later opened a business college, radio stations, a savings and loan and a motel.